Kaupapa Hauora Māori - Nga Whakaaro Whakahirahira o Nga Kaumatua (2007)

by Dr Janice Wenn

a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Maori Studies at Te Pumanawa Hauora Research Centre for Maori Health and Development, Massey University, Wellington.Awhina_Cameron_and_Dr_Janice_Wenn_2009.JPG

(photo: Janice Wenn, right, deputy Chair of Tu Tama Wahine o Taranaki Trust Board, with TTW Chief Executive Ngaropi Cameron)

There is a requirement for all services within the New Zealand health system to be accredited with an established quality organisation and to demonstrate an ability to provide a measurable quality service to consumers. For Maori these requirements must make sense in Maori terms. This thesis is based on the view that, for Maori, the concept of health is more effectively expressed as hauora - optimal health and wellbeing for Maori.

This thesis makes five contributions to Maori health and Maori health research. First, it identifies a responsive approach to engaging kaumatua effectively in the process of qualitative research. Second, it identifies a fundamental underlying conceptual framework – kaupapa hauora Maori as a means of understanding hauora – expressed in terms derived from kaumatua in Taranaki and Kahungunu. Third, it adapts this conceptual framework into an analytical research framework and then applies it to allow kaupapa hauora Maori (described in terms of worldview, values and ethics) to be identified from a range of data. Fourth, it critically analyses popular models of Maori health – Te Whare Tapa Wha, Te Wheke and Nga Pou Mana. Finally, it proposes and details post-doctoral research that will translate kaupapa hauora Maori into a quality services framework/tool.

“Kaupapa Hauora Maori” is a conceptual framework articulated by kaumatua, and has its origins in te ao Maori, from which the aronga or worldview is developed. The aronga is composed of the kaupapa or values and tikanga or ethics that provide kaumatua with the values base of hauora. These components have been identified by kaumatua and not only inform the concept of KHM but also inform the analytical research framework that is applied to the data. The values have been identified as a core set of values comprising whakapapa, wairua, whenua, whanau, tikanga te reo Maori, tinana, and hinengaro, and the associated tikanga is expressed as behaviour or ethics. These, together, influence the perception and understanding individuals have of their world and of hauora.  -- Janice Wenn


Dr Janice Wenn interviewed on nursing history for the New Zealand Nursing Education and Research Foundation.

(audio) The Nursing Oral History Project (May 2008) 

419px-Janice_Wenn_sen_nurse.jpgReflecting on a rich and rewarding nursing life: Janice Wenn who began her training in 1952 and was awarded her doctorate last year, reflects on her nursing journey.

"I guess at age 75 I am allowed the time to reflect on what I perceive is a very full, sometimes humorous, sometimes frustrating, but always an exciting and rewarding journey through life as a nurse, a health service manager and, most importantly, as wahine Maori. I did not develop this last role until mid career, when I became actively involved in hauora Maori (Maori health and well-being), recognising the need for cultural safety in the provision of aLI health services and now my belief that unless the cultural values of our people are recognised and applied, we will be left producing "outputs" as opposed to meaningful outcomes.

I am of Ngati Kahungungu ki Wairarapa descent; my hapu are Ngati Moe and Ngati Hinewaka--a fact, the importance of which I did not recognise until I became actively committed to Hauora Maori.

I was born in a small town with a large extended family nearby. We all went to the local primary school, where I remember an incident when the school teacher in standard one asked some of my friends home for tea, but I was never asked. Being bold, I asked her why I couldn't go to tea too and she made reference to my origins. In retrospect, this was blatant racism and discrimination. But despite this level of prejudice, I just continued. My father used to say I could do anything I set my mind to, so I did. I decided to go nursing. My mother was adamant I would go to New Plymouth, where, according to her, they educated nurses to be ladies. I started with 12 other student nurses in New Plymouth in January 1952. It was a very rigid training but they were interesting years." - Janice Wenn